The sins of the parents: Persistence of gender bias across generations and the gender gap in math performance
with Feng Hu
We study the transmission of gender bias from adults to children and how this contributes to the gender gap in mathematics. We exploit plausibly exogenous variation in the proportion of a child’s middle school classmates whose parents believe boys are better than girls at learning mathematics. An increase in exposure to peers whose parents report this belief increases a child’s likelihood of believing it, with similar effects for boys and girls and greater transmission from peers of the same gender. This exposure affects children’s perceived difficulty of math, aspirations, and academic performance, generating gains for boys and losses for girls.
Stereotypes, role models, and the formation of beliefs (upated December 2017, submitted)
with Feng Hu
Here is a video of me presenting this paper at the University of Chicago (October 2017)
Information affects beliefs, which in turn determine investment decisions. Because human capital exhibits dynamic complementarity, early sources of information play a crucial role in its formation. We study how information from stereotypes and role models influences children’s beliefs, aspirations, investment, and academic performance. A model of investment under uncertainty predicts that role models should have the greatest effect for children facing stereotypes who are also on the margin of not investing in human capital. We exploit random assignment of students to classes in nationally-representative data from Chinese middle schools to test the model’s main predictions and address potential alternative explanations.
Does primary school duration matter? Evaluating the consequences of a large Chinese policy experiment (upated December 2017, submitted)
with Feng Hu
(note: this paper was previously circulated under the titles "The Power of Credential Length Policy: Schooling Decisions and Returns in Modern China" and "The Importance of Educational Credentials: Schooling Decisions and Returns in Modern China"; it was changed to the current title after input from a series of helpful referees)
Nearly all governments provide primary schooling, but surprisingly little is known about how changes to the duration of primary school affect educational attainment and performance in the labor market. We study a Chinese policy which extended the duration of primary school from five years to six but did not change the curriculum. We exploit its gradual rollout over space and time to generate causal estimates of its impact on educational attainment and subsequent labor market outcomes. We find that the policy has small, largely positive effects on post-primary educational attainment, and raises average monthly income by 2.6%. The policy is progressive, generating higher returns (5-8%) among both women and the least educated. We estimate the policy has already reallocated 450 million years of labor from work to schooling and we generate cost-benefit estimates to quantify this tradeoff, highlighting the large public finance implications of this policy decision.
Work in progress
Support classes offered in rural education: The SCORE trial
This paper reports the results of a three year randomized controlled trial run in over 150 villages in regions 3 and 4 of the Gambia. An after-school remedial education program, based on that of the STRIPES Trial (Lakshminarayana et al., PLoS ONE 2013), was given to a set of entering first graders from January 2016 to April 2018. Pre-specified analysis will compare test scores in math and English between intervention and control groups as well as the effects of the intervention on time use, aspirations, and expenditure.
Private school entry and girls’ schooling outcomes in rural India
with Andrew Foster
Private primary and secondary schools are an increasingly central part of many education systems in the developing world, particularly in South Asia. A prominent criticism of this development is that the cost of private school induces poor families to pull some children out of school in order to afford fees for the others, and that girl children are the most likely to suffer as a result. We test this hypothesis using panel data from a representative sample of Indian villages spanning 1970 to 2015. We find that boys benefit disproportionately from private schools: in villages where private schools establish, the average schooling of boys increases by approximately one year while girls’ schooling stays constant. We find no evidence, however, for the claim that girls’ schooling decreases after private school entry. In addition, we find that average years of completed schooling increases by 0.8 years for girls whose older brothers are exposed to private schooling, and that this effect increases the closer in the family’s birth order the first exposed brother is to the girl. This result is consistent with a model in which families learn about school quality and allocate more resources to the production of learning (i.e. hours of their children's time) when the quality of complementary inputs increases.
with Peter Boone and Diana Elbourne
The World Bank Economic Review, Volume 31, Issue 3, 1 October 2017, Pages 687–707
Also Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper No. 1240, September 2013
NOTE: previously circulated as “Risk and Evidence of Bias in Randomized Controlled Trials in Economics”
Community health promotion and medical provision for neonatal health—CHAMPION cluster randomised trial in Nagarkurnool district, Telangana (formerly Andhra Pradesh), India
with Peter Boone, Vera Mann, Rohini Mukherjee, Chitra Jayanty, Chris Frost, M Reddy Padmanabh, Rashmi Lakshminarayana and Diana Elbourne.
PLoS Medicine 2017, 14(7): e1002324
Remedial After-school Support Classes Offered in Rural Gambia (The SCORE Trial): Study Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
with Peter Boone, Alpha Camara, Diana Elbourne, Chris Frost, Samory Fernandes, Chitra Jayanty, Maitri Lenin, and Ana Filipa Silva
Trials 2015, 16:574
in India’s Human Security: Lost Debates, Forgotten People, Intractable Challenges, Jason Miklian and Ashild Kolas, Editors, Routledge, New York. 2013
The Support to Rural India’s Public Education System (STRIPES) trial: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of Supplementary Teaching, Learning Material and Material Support
with Rashmi Lakshminarayana, Preetha Bhakta, Chris Frost, Peter Boone, Diana Elbourne, and Vera Mann.
PLoS ONE 2013, 8(7): e65775
A Comparative Study to Assess the Lasting Impact of a Long-running Community-based Primary Health Care Programme on Under-5 Mortality in Jamkhed, India
with Peter Boone, Vera Mann, Chris Frost, and Ramaswamy Premkumar
Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2010, 88:727–73
Coverage: New York Times
with Vera Mann, Preetha Bhakta, Rashmi Lakshminarayana, Chris Frost, Diana Elbourne and Peter Boone
Trials 2010, 11:10
with Peter Boone, Vera Mann, Tarana Mendiratta, Rohini Mukherjee, Ryan Figueiredo, Chitra Jayanty, Chris Frost, M Reddy Padmanabh and Diana Elbourne
BMC Pediatrics, 2007 7:26